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(Courtesy of Montana Historical Society) What's the point? For example, experts know that the Wahkpa Chu'gn kill site in Havre was first used by the Besant people because the bottom layer of bones contains spear points fashioned in a style unique to that culture. To determine when a certain tribe used a kill site, archaeologists rely on radiocarbon dating (a.k.a carbon dating). The samples of charcoal and pupae were sent to a lab at the University of Arizona to be radiocarbon dated. Archaeologists aren't sure exactly when Indians stopped using the First Peoples Buffalo Jump because the upper layers of bones have never been carbon dated. an animal that brought many big changes to the Indian way of life.

The Besant used a spear-like weapon called an "atlatl", whereas the Avonlea and Saddle Butte peoples, who used the site during later times, preferred the bow and arrow. Radiocarbon dating is a type of radiometric dating that is especially useful at kill sites because it can be used to date organic materials; materials that were once part of a living things (flesh, bone, wood, charcoal, seeds, etc.). However, they do note that the use of buffalo jumps generally started to decline in the 1700s with the arrival of the horse .

No two are exactly the same, but they often contain a wealth of evidence, including bison bones, arrowheads, tools, roasting pits, and fire-cracked rock. Two important questions archaeologists try to answer as they unearth a kill site are, "Who used this place? " Arrowheads and spear tips, called "points," can help provide an answer to the first question. Jack Fisher of Montana State University, the organic materials used to establish dates at the First Peoples site were wood charcoal (burnt wood from a campfire) and blowfly pupae cases. Radiocarbon dating of organic materials from the First Peoples Buffalo Jump revealed that it was used from about 900 AD until at least 1500 AD.

Below: This diorama depicts the First Peoples Buffalo Jump. Archeologists have learned to recognize trademarks and differences between points designed by various Indian tribes and Paleoindian groups. A mass of hundreds (or thousands) of blowfly pupae were found with the bones of a bison forelimb that may have been discarded with muscle tissue still present. The styles of points found there match those from the pre-historic Avonlea and Old Women's cultures (ancestors of more recent Indian tribes).

However, to learn about the heritage of Montana's tribes centuries farther back in time is much more challenging because experts have to rely on types of evidence that are harder to find and more difficult to interpret. Archaeologists have identified over 300 in Montana alone, and there are likely many more that haven't been found or reported.

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His Ph D thesis was on isotope ratios in meteorites, including surface exposure dating.

It has become increasingly clear that these radiometric dating techniques agree with each other and as a whole, present a coherent picture in which the Earth was created a very long time ago.

Further evidence comes from the complete agreement between radiometric dates and other dating methods such as counting tree rings or glacier ice core layers.

that radiocarbon measurements on the shroud should be performed blind seem to the author to be lacking in merit …

group and the candidate laboratories devolved into a P. However, in a 1990 paper Gove conceded that the "arguments often raised, …

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